The risk-benefit calculation for any drug assumes a correct diagnosis of the disorder. Many investigators and clinicians feel the current epidemic of child psychiatric disorders is largely due to inappropriate diagnosis. Evaluate the risk and benefits of using psychoactive drugs in children correctly diagnosed with a disorder versus those incorrectly diagnosed with a disorder. Consider the risks and benefits of not treating (drug treatment) a child because they are not correctly diagnosed with a disorder.  In your evaluation summarize the natural course of the disorder, the drug action on the neurotransmitter systems in question, and the likelihood of short-term, long-term, and permanent positive and negative effects of drug treatment. Make sure to take into account the ethical dimension of this risk-benefit calculation.Behnke, M., & Smith, V. C. (2013).Prenatal substance abuse: Short- and long-term effects on the exposed fetus (Links to an external site.). Pediatrics, 131(3), 1009-1024. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-3931The full-text version of this article can be accessed via the following URL: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2013/02/20/peds.2012-3931. The author of this article examines the issue behind prenatal drug use.Wlodarczyk, B. J., Palacioa, A. M., George, T. M., & Finnell, R. H. (2012).Antiepileptic drugs and pregnancy outcomes (Links to an external site.). American Journal of Medical Genetics, 158A(8), 2071-2090. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.35438The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the PubMed database in the University of Arizona Global Campus Library. The authors of this article examine prenatal drug use in women with seizure disorders.

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