I need help creating a thesis and an outline on The History and the Future of GPS. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. The GPS IIF is the expanded version of GPS IIR (M) which will be consisting of 12 satellites altogether the third of which is launched in the current year. Another series of GPS Block III is under development process which would be able to give more powerful signals and better (PNT). The Global Positioning System provides information related to time and location. It is a satellite navigation system which works well in all weather conditions on and close to the earth (Global Positioning System). It is owned and maintained by the United States of America and serves in the PNT i.e. positioning, navigation and timing. GPS has played vital role in modernizing the Air Traffic System and it has benefitted the military, army, civil and commercial users all around the world. The whole system is basically divided into three major segments including Space segment, Control segment and User segment. The first two are developed and operated by the US Air Force (GPS overview). The space segment consists of a group of satellites which form a particular shape in the space and transmit radio signals to the users. At least 24 satellites are available in the space 95% of the time (Space segment). The control segment represents all the ground facilities that monitor the satellites, analyze their data and keep a check on their performance (control segment). The user segment is used to calculate the user’s three dimensional position and time by GPS receiver equipment which receives the information from the satellites and transmit it to the GPS receiver device (user segment). HISTORICAL CONTEXT GPS was developed by the US Department of Defense (DoD) and started its operations in 1994. The previous navigation systems had some limitations and drawbacks which actually gave rise to the creation of GPS. The project was developed in 1973 by the unification of ideas from the previously working navigation systems (National Research Council U.S.). Originally it ran with 24 satellites. The first experimental GPS I satellite was launched in 1978 and by 1985 ten more satellites were launched. GPS was widely used in the Gulf War of 1990-91 (The Global Positioning System: Assessing National Policies ). In 1993, GPS had the initial operational capability (IOC) and was proving the Standard Positioning Service (SPS). In 1995, full operational capability was declared to the GPS since Precise Positioning Service was fully available. GPS III was launched in 1998 later in 2005 the modernized version of GPS was launched with civilian signal (L2C). In 2010, software incompatibility was caused because of the ground control system (ELLIOTT). On October 12, 2012 the GPS IIF-3 was launched. Satellite Orbits Each satellite completes the circle of the earth in 12 hours i.e. twice in a day. It flies in the middle Earth orbit (MEO). The satellites are arranged in 24-slot arrangement in a way that they can be viewed from anywhere on the earth. Normally 24 satellites keep on flying in the space monitored by the Air Force. In 2011, the 24-slot arrangement was modified to 27-slot arrangement which increased the coverage efficiency of GPS (Space segment). Applications of GPS There are various applications of GPS in the civil and military sectors. Apart from them it is also used in hundreds of apps in cell phones, wristwatches, shipping containers and ATM’s hence it has become an important part of the space infrastructure.

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