Create a 10 pages page paper that discusses critically evaluate the relevance of cultural theories to the study of international hrm. There are several theories that relate to culture including globe theory, Hofstede theory and Trompenaar theory. The Hofstede theory is retrieved from the research of a Dutch researcher Geert Hofstede, who derived his model from studying employee’s behavior at the work place. Some cultures value equality among people, while others value power. However, Geert focuses on five cultural dimensions that include power distance index, individualism, masculinity, uncertain avoidance index, and long-term orientation. In power distance index, the junior staff expectations are for the power to be distributed appropriately and equally, since they do not have authority in the organization or in the society. According to Hillebrand (2008 pp 3), in Low power distance model, people tend to see the members of the society as equal such as the western cultures. They believe that power should be equal and that managers or leaders should not have a lot of power compared to the subordinates. this applies to countries like Israel. However, the high power distance reveals that those in authority should have more power than the subordinates. this is applicable in Malaysia. Nevertheless, societies cannot be equal. there is always an element of un-equality among them (Jais, 2007, pp 34). Individualism dimension interests are divided into two – individual and group interests. In the society, every individual has a duty of looking after himself and his nuclear family. Collectivism come in where the extended family is involved, in which, one has the duty of taking care of them due to the strong ties in the family. This dimension only focuses on family interests. The third dimension is the masculinity verses femininity dimension, which focuses on the femininity concentrating on the distribution of duties between the two genders, male and female. The study shows that women and men values differ. For instance, male are believed to value material wealth and money, they also work hard to pursue their expected goals in life. it could be buying a Mercedes. In fact, most men in different countries are competitive when it comes to the way of living. However, in comparison, women have a strong value for the quality of life, social interactions and they have concern about the welfare of others. for instance, most women contribute to charity concerning children. The fourth dimension is the long-term versus short-term orientation, in which long-term orientation mainly concentrates on relationships, Work, and life and it involves the perseverance value. If a culture is willing to work for the long-term goals, then the culture has long-term orientation (Torun, 2007 pp 10). This orientation involves hard work and dedication. Short-term orientation is mainly concerned with the past and the present, whereas its values involve fulfilling of social obligation and respecting the values of tradition, in addition to protecting one’s image. This orientation is common in the Philippines (Bhagat and Steers, N.d). The fifth and final dimension is the uncertain avoidance index, this index deals with the level of uncertainty and to which level can it be tolerated and its impact on decision making in a society (Hofstede G, 1983 pp 83).

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